Consultants on Immersive Tech

For both producers and users of immersive technologies
● Strategic Planning, Executive Backup
● Communications, Marketing & Branding
● Market Research and Insight

We've consulted with some of the most important companies in the world, helping them succeed in xR. We work with both producers and users of immersive technologies.

We make your branding, messaging, and business development more effective, helping you stand out in the xR industry.

Our proprietary research and data have enabled companies around the world to succeed in selling and buying xR technologies and systems.

When you lack the time or talent to tell you story well, our professional communicators make YOUR story compelling.

The ImmersivEdge Blog. Sharing some of our thoughts and observations. Have an announcement or news we should know about? Send it to

  •  04/05/2021 08:22 AM

Microsoft and the US Army announced that they have been given the go-ahead to produce Hololens-based displays, called IVAS (Integrated Visual Augmentation System). IVAS is intended to provide improved situational awareness on the battlefield and to enable soldiers to share information and better coordinate their efforts.

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  •  12/08/2020 05:55 AM

I had the opportunity to try a new virtual social networking platform, Arthur. Arthur does a lot of things right, and many of them better than other social xR solutions I have tried. It has a good feature set and is glitch-free and responsive.

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  •  12/01/2020 05:55 AM

Varjo has improved the specs for their already impressive headsets, and added a number of appealing features. But what may be most surprising is that they have reduced the price, by half, for both of their professional HMDs, the VR3 and the XR3.

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  •  07/08/2020 03:29 PM

Smartglasses Roadmap – the 20’s, Investor Edition is the most recent analysis from ImmersivEdge Advisors. This in-depth examination of the about-to-explode Smartglasses industry helps investors to understand and evaluate the applications, technologies, and companies that will be leading this field.

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  •  06/17/2020 02:06 PM

Bose has shuttered their AR Division, releasing staff and cutting off developers. Their AR glasses, called Frames, are still available, but without AR capabilities.

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  •  05/27/2020 04:30 AM

OVR Technology has announced the release of its Architecture of Scent® platform for virtual reality, which combines hardware, software, and scentware to replicate complex sensory experiences in digital worlds. The Architecture of Scent offers a safe, effective way to add scent into VR. In doing so, it provides a way for VR content developers to construct more realistic immersive experiences for greater impact and improved outcomes, in healthcare, education, training, human connection, or other areas.

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  •  05/26/2020 10:29 AM

Looking Glass Factory has announced the immediate availability of their newest volumetric display, the 8K Immersive Display. This system, powered by Looking Glass Factory’s proprietary light field technology, is a desktop, holographic display. The 32" Looking Glass 8K display provides 33.2 million pixels of 32-bit color at 60 Hz. This new system is one of the largest holographic displays in the market today and also provides the highest fidelity

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  •  05/08/2020 04:04 AM

Providing hands-free Augmented Reality (AR), Smartglasses are expected to overtake smartphones by the end of the decade. The unprecedented pandemic’s impact on the global economy forces reevaluation of projections, revisions to forecasts of units sold, revenue, and profits through 2030. ImmersivEdge Advisors has revised their breakthrough report on smartglasses to take into account the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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  •  04/22/2020 04:22 PM

On April 21, 2020, the Silicon Valley chapter of VRARA sponsored a fireside chat with chapter president Dirk Schart and IEA CEO Ben Delaney. they talked for an hour about smartglasses and the recent IEA report, Smartglasses Roadmap – the 20's. Here is a video of the event.

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  •  04/21/2020 02:43 PM

Samsung increase stake in Digilens. Follow-on investment in DigiLens will accelerate XR optical solutions that can hit a consumer price point

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  •  04/01/2020 02:25 PM

Smartglasses Roadmap – the 20's takes a deep dive into the technology, vendors, applications and end users for this about to explode product category. The 64-page report provides market numbers, key technology discussions, major application areas, and guidance for manufacturers, investors, and end users. the report is available in English and Chinese.

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  •  03/31/2020 12:05 PM

Smartglasses replace smart phones and smart watches by 2030 on way to $34B revenue. Breakthrough report from ImmersivEdge Advisors describes the technologies and companies that will dominate the market, predicts when key capabilities will emerge, offers critical guidance for buyers, sellers and investors.

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The first report to describe smartglasses' road to ubiquity as they replace smart phones and smart watches by 2030.

About the report

About the report

Smartglasses Roadmap – the 20's takes a deep dive into the technology, vendors, applications and end users for this about to explode product category. Version 1.1 includes significant updates to reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The 65-page report provides market numbers, key technology discussions, major application areas, and guidance for manufacturers, investors, and end users. The report is available in English and Chinese.

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Forecast adjustments due to the COVID-19 pandemic

Forecast adjustments due to the COVID-19 pandemic

We originally wrote this report in February and March of 2020. At that time, it was not yet obvious that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic would be as great as it has become. Though we included a brief mention of the pandemic and the increased uncertainty it caused in the report at that time, we have since reevaluated our projections.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Smartglasses Roadmap – is 65 pages filled with facts and findings that everyone involved with this rapidly approaching technology will find essential to business planning. The report includes a Glossary, 7 tables, 6 charts, and 9 illustrations.

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We believe that packaging the functionality of Hololens into a form factor of a pair of Ray Bans is essential to widespread acceptance of AR in the consumer space. In fact, that is essentially our definition of smartglasses. In retail, architecture, medicine, gaming, education, maintenance, training, and many other fields, AR has already become a routine experience, with little pushback, and a multitude of applications in both the consumer and enterprise spaces. Acceptance of these applications will explode when the viewing devices become more user friendly. Those devices, we believe, will be smartglasses.

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Purchase Smartglasses Roadmap – the 20's

Purchase Smartglasses Roadmap – the 20's

Smartglasses Roadmap – the 20's is available as a PDF file, in either English or Chinese. It is delivered directly to your email box.

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我们认为,将Hololens的功能包装到一对Ray Bans的外形中,对于AR在消费者空间中的广泛接受至关重要。 实际上,这实质上是我们对智能眼镜的定义。 在零售,建筑,医药,游戏,教育,维护,培训和许多其他领域中,AR已经成为例行体验,几乎没有退缩,并且在消费者和企业空间中都有大量应用。 当查看设备变得更加用户友好时,对这些应用程序的接受程度将激增。 我们相信,这些设备将是智能眼镜。

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The best team, the most experience, the deepest understanding of the sector.

The ImmersivEdge leadership team, L-R: Ben Delaney, Patti Glovsky, Clark Dodsworth, Linda Jacobson, Brian BlauThe ImmersivEdge Mission
To help business leaders achieve clarity and make the best decisions regarding buying, selling, adopting, understanding and investing in immersive technologies.

Our Vision
That companies developing, investing in, and using immersive technologies get the best ROI, while using these technologies to better the lives of their stakeholders.

Who We Work With
We work with both producers of immersive technologies and the business consumers of those technologies.

  • For developers of hardware and software, we provide strategic and tactical assistance in management, marketing, messaging, and market research.
  • For organizations evaluating and implementing immersive technologies, we assist with vendor selection, task suitability analysis, ROI evaluation, assistance in choosing technologies, help in evaluating proposals, and project management.
How We Meet Your Needs
Amid overhyped enthusiasm and misrepresentations of all things xR, key success factors include understanding the marketplace, having a clear and cohesive business plan, and communicating clearly and accurately. We assist in all of these areas. We provide the same services as the big, expensive consulting firms, but with greater expertise and lower overhead.

What We Uniquely Offer You
Very few people or organizations possess the unique talents and broad, deep experience that the ImmersivEdge team has. Having spent years in every aspect of virtual and augmented reality, we have seen the good, the bad, and yes, the truly ugly in xR.

With extensive experience in business leadership, including bottom-line responsibility, we understand what it takes to start, grow, and maintain a successful enterprise. Our awards and testimonials from around the world document our expertise. Our satisfied clients attest to our ability to understand, analyze, and assist in strategic and tactical business operations. We know immersive technologies and we understand your business. ImmersivEdge Advisors helps you succeed in the complex and challenging environment of immersive technologies.

Get in touch today. 
Contact form, 510 419-0800,

We start with lots of questions — about you.

How we help you image
ImmersivEdge Advisors is a service business – we provide personal, professional service to every one of our clients. We ask a lot of questions so we understand your business, your objectives, your position in the marketplace – what we need to know to offer exceptional service.

We provide the same services as the big, expensive consulting firms. But we have more experience and lower overhead, so you get better results.

When we work with you, we apply our tested processes to address your requirements. We work with you to define the final objectives, deliverables, and milestones. We take the time to answer your questions. We respond quickly.

We help developers and manufacturers perfect their products, strategies, market knowledge, and messaging. We help xR users choose the right solutions and solution providers.

Contact us today to discuss how we can help you maximize your investment in xR or other advanced technologies. Use our CONTACT form, email us, or call +1 510 419-0800.

Our goal is outcomes that exceed your expectations. We're eager to make your experience with us memorable in all the right ways. If you need something we haven’t considered, tell us. If you see a way to improve our services or products, we want to hear about it. And if you have a colleague who needs our help, we appreciate your recommendation.

Get in touch today. 
Contact form, 510 419-0800,

Ready to help you succeed with xR.

Our Team image
We provide a variety of services that assist companies like yours with your most challenging issues. We address strategic planning, branding, marketing, communications, and research. With years of experience in every aspect of the immersive technologies sector, we are prepared to help you start or grow your business. Our agile, distributed structure enables us to assemble the team that is best for your requirements. Our international connections ensure that you are getting the expertise you need.

Contact us for a no-charge, no-obligation assessment of your opportunities and challenges.

Meet our leadership team.

Ben Delaney, CEO
Ben Delaney, CEO, CyberEdge Information ServicesBen has been working in computer graphics since the 1980's, and is considered a pioneer in the virtual realty sector. He was editor and publisher of the voice of the industry, CyberEdge Journal, and chief analyst and author of the highly respected annual report, The Market for Visual Simulation/Virtual Reality Systems, which was published annually in the early 2000's. Recently, he held the position of Chief Analyst at a leading market research firm focusing on xR. Ben has hundreds of articles in print and authored the five-star rated book, Virtual Reality 1.0 – the 90's.

Ben's knowledge of the xR sector is unrivaled. His years as a serial entrepreneur and business executive enable him to quickly identify opportunities and impediments, and help your executives develop effective plans. He has worked on projects and presented in more than a dozen countries.

Ben has received multiple awards for marketing, design, and writing. In addition to Virtual Reality 1.0, he has written an award-winning book on marketing, Ben Delaney's Nonprofit Marketing Handbook, now in its second edition. He has made dozens of presentation on three continents, has been cited in newspapers and magazines around the world, and makes frequent appearances on television and radio.

Ben talks about the foundations of xR: Watch
Ben on a panel talking about AR in enterprise: Watch

Patti Glovsky, Senior Advisor
Patricia Glovsky is a technology investment banker with deep experience in corporate finance investment banking. She began her career at a leading Wall Street investment bank, Kidder Peabody Incorporated. She worked primarily on technology M&A and private placement transactions and developed a unique focus on Visual Computing technologies across industries.
Patti was there at the early days of these and related technologies and is an established expert in visual computing and broad range of related technologies. Her clients have been important innovators in visual technologies, including simulation/synthetic environments, video games, VR/AR/xR, AI, Machine Learning, image processing, graphics, CAD software, video editing, GIS (geographic information systems), medical imaging, visualization, displays, and more.

Patti has represented world-class technology leaders who most often sell their companies to some of the world’s largest technology corporations. Patti holds several securities licenses with FINRA/SEC.

Patti’s focus is on:
  • Mergers and Acquisitions - buy side, sell side, mergers
  • Capital Raising - growth capital, bank debt, private equity, second round of capital raising
  • Transaction readiness - market attractiveness, transaction preparations, organization shaping, business and capital strategy, execution

Clark Dodsworth, Senior Advisor
Clark DodsworthClark Dodsworth provides strategy, analysis, and definition for AR and xR tools, markets, initiatives, services, products, technologies, interfaces, and design. He works from a user-centered perspective, which is fundamental for efficiency and effectiveness across all industries.

Clark expects that the most successful companies in immersive technologies will foresee and prepare proactively for the convergence of context with ubiquitous sensing, realtime analytics, and pervasive A.I.

He speaks frequently at conferences in the US, EU and Asia, and was an invited speaker at the world’s first AR conferences from 2010, on the topic of mobile context awareness. He is the author of Digital Illusions.

Clark has extensive experience in location-based entertainment and specified the first large-scale AR entertainment system in 2007 for Dubailand, including 4 theme parks. His spec was based on a powerful smartphone platform that he predicted would eventually become powerful enough to use by the time Dubailand opened. The iPhone was announced a few months later.

Clark talks about how Reality Augments us, in this talk. Watch.

Linda Jacobson, Senior Advisor
Linda JacobsonKnown for her leadership roles in establishing the global virtual reality industry, Linda Jacobson helps product developers and founders to create and implement cost-effective launches, brand activations, and GTM campaigns.

Linda facilitates dynamic, hands-on workshops and offsites that enable teams to streamline sales funnels, gain market traction, and attract revenues and investment. She has a broad, deep background as a tech journalist, and as a marketer, educator, event host and speaker. She helped create Wired magazine and wrote two ground-breaking books about VR.

Recently, Linda provided business development, market research, marketing communications, and PR services, including user feedback on product-market fit, to several seed-stage startups, enabling them to enlist early adopters, close deals, and attract funding.

Linda leads a panel discussing AR and the marketplace it exists in. Watch.

Brian Blau, Senior Advisor
Brian Blau is a personal technology expert and business leader with deep experience in immersive technologies and the business of technology markets.

Brian’s roles have included technical and leadership positions in computer graphics, games and social networking at organizations including Autodesk, Silicon Graphics, Double Fusion, Gartner, and vTime. He has made significant contributions in the areas of market analysis and strategy advice, social AR/VR solutions, technology-driven in-game advertising, developer-supported social networks, and visual simulation and animation tools.

As Research Vice President and analyst at Gartner, Brian led research on consumer social networks, the video game market, mobile apps, consumer ecosystems, wearable devices and apps, virtual and augmented reality, personal drones, and app, services, technologies and go-to-market strategies. He testified before the US Senate Commerce Committee in 2017 on aspects of the emerging augmented reality market.

Mr. Blau was a VRML pioneer and helped establish early network-based 3D tools and technologies. He has been published and cited extensively and frequently presents on these topics.

Brian testifies before the US Senate Commerce Committee. Watch (Brian's testimony starts at ~29:28)

Get in touch today. 
Contact form, 510 419-0800,

Some unsolicited comments on our work.

 I recommend Ben Delaney as an executive, leader and business professional. Ben is one of the hardest working people I know and is committed to doing his very best at all times. He has a great deal of respect in the business community. Ben is highly organized and is very capable of business development, marketing, strategic planning and budgeting. I can’t recommend him too strongly. 

Joe McKinleyDirector of Operations, The Stride Center

 For 15 years Clark has advised SimEx ! Iwerks on dozens of product opportunities, technologies, and companies. His assessments have been characterized by strong research, balanced judgement and deep insight. Clark took the time to understand who we are, where we want to go, what we can do well, where our talents matched the opportunity (or not), and what could be the obstacles (particularly technical ones) in developing the market. Clark has advised us on four successful acquisitions and on several others we wisely decided to forego. His book on “Digital Illusion in Entertainment” remains a well-thumbed reference for our managers. 

Michael NeedhamChairman / CEO, SimEx ! Iwerks Entertainment

 As an avid watcher and participant in the real-time immersive 3D / Virtual Reality market, I've relied upon Ben's research and reports for almost a decade. Anyone seriously considering entering into or growing in this or a related market should seriously consider working with him. 

Mark FerneauConsulting Director at MarkLogic

 I worked with Linda on several projects. She is extremely goal oriented and her enthusiasm is endless. She is very much a people person and her marketing leadership at PARC demonstrated a fundamental understanding of business that still continues to foster positive growth. 

Robert TerryCTO / Founder, SmartCatch

 You may remember the Virtual Reality Applications Forums that I put together at Arthur D. Little. Your talk, which concentrated on Motorola's experience in pager assembly operations training, was one of the best of the entire series! 

Gordon RichardsonArthur D. Little

 Clark thrives in the nascent intersections between industries, where new products, markets and revenue streams are created. He knows the difference between a merely good solution and the right solution at the right time. He understands the power of visionary initiatives combining the impact of scenario-based planning, targeted venture investments, and strategic alliances. 

Eli ZelkhaCEO, Palo Alto Ventures

 Hi Ben! Well, the press release did it's job wonderfully! Total of 4747 Hits. That's our hit count yesterday. Thanks for the great work! 

Jeffrey DonovanFounder and Chief Technical Officer, InWorld VR, Inc.

 Linda is one of the most creative thinkers that I have ever dealt with. Her ability to take complex concepts and translate them into usable and applicable methodology was brilliant. She motivates markets to challenge the innovators until satisfied and then ultimately applies the final output to real world problems and applications. I hope to work with Linda again. 

Jim AngelilloVice President, Advanced Visualization Group (AVG)

 Your report helped us a lot. Our project is much closer to fruition. 

Chris Ward, PresidentLightspeed Design

 I want to thank you for the filming session. It really was the first time that I was comfortable in front of a camera. You knew your stuff and how to guide us, but let us be ourselves. Thanks for all your work. 

Karen DeVries

 I wanted to take the time to commend you on the fantastic article that you penned in the April/May issue (Vol 10 No.9) of Real Time Graphics. I thought it was well researched and well written. I also liked it because it related info to the readers about real time commercial uses of visualization. 

Jim Angelillo VP, Strategic RelationsFakespace Systems Inc.

 Thanks for another great article on visualization for the oil and gas industry. I read the article in IEEE CG&A, and was really impressed with how accessible you made it. I was especially surprised that you got the Immersive WorkBench name right. Doesn't CG&A have about a six month lead time? I've already alerted people at Fakespace that this is a "must-read!" 

Wendy LewisAcocunt Executive, FS Communications

 Linda is simply a great person to work with. She is extremely knowledgeable, contagiously enthusiastic, and a great communicator who really understands people and gets them excited about their work. I've known her professionally since we were both active in the wave of virtual reality. At that time, she was one of the most widely recognized spokespersons for that industry, always generating enthusiasm and excitement among insiders and newcomers alike. She has a knack for explaining complex technical concepts in approachable terms, always with a positive human spin. 

Christian GreuelProducer, Interactive 3D

 Thanks for the perspective. Your drive and presence has been a stabilizing force for VR, and CyberEdge Journal provided the credibility. 

Richard Satava, MDUS Army (Ret)

 Ben is definitely a technology leader. He's been working in the Virtual Reality (VR) field when most of us were still trying to figure out what VR was. 

Nina AdamsCEO, Adams Consulting

The authoritative source for VR & AR definitions: the xR Glossary & xR Dictionary of Acronyms.

Tracking capability wherein both a headset and associated controllers mapped to users’ hands are tracked in a room scale space especially as opposed to static, solely rotational tracking (3 DoF) or partial room scale, where the head-mounted unit is tracked in space, but controller inputs are not (6.3 DoF).
8K resolution or 8K UHD is the current highest ultra high definition television (UHDTV) resolution in digital television and digital cinematography. 8K refers to the horizontal resolution in the order of 8,000 pixels.
A method of addressing individual LCD elements that provides faster update timing, better color and a wider viewing angle than passive-matrix displays.
The addition of computer-generated imagery (CGI) to real life imagery, in either a see-through or video-based display. Generally, the CGI is registered to the real world through the use of a variety of sensors. These sensors may include video, GPS, and external or internal tracking systems. See Mixed Reality.
A display system that provides a stereo 3-dimensional image without the use of eyewear.

Amount of light emitted by a display, either via projection, illuminated pixels, or a backlight component. The brightness of a traditional emissive panel is measured in “nits” (a function of candelas per square meter), and in projection-based technology in ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Lumens.
Ratio figure which describes the maximum brightness a display is capable of achieving relative to its maximum darkness. Measurement is typically measured under highly controlled conditions by manufacturers. While it is a measure closely related to brightness in displays, it currently has no universally standardized or agreed upon measurement / evaluative methodology.
Room-sized display system comprised of three to six walls. Often built with stereo-optic displays. Typically images are projected, but systems can also be built from video display panels. Sizes are typically 3-4 meters on each side. Valued for collaboration in virtual environments. First demonstrated by the University of Illinois, Chicago in early 1990’s.
Cylindrical projection surface.  Typically, 3 meter or greater diameter. Provides a seamless 360° visual field and can show stereo imagery. Useful for groups. A more compact form factor than a dome.
Semi-spherical projection surface.  Typically, 3 meter or greater diameter. Provides  a seamless 360° visual field and can show stereo imagery. Useful for collaborative work.
A display that emits light, as opposed to a display that reflects light. Paper is a reflective display. Television is an emissive display. Most computer displays not using projectors are emissive.
Entertainment Centers are facilities with a wide vari[1] ety of entertainment experiences or systems within a single out-of-home entertainment center or FEC, much like a small indoor amusement park. These locations are not dedicated to a specific type of experience can house entertainment experiences ranging bowling to gaming arcade cabinets to slot machines.
The use of specialized hardware positioned towards a display’s user to record the orientation and activity of the eyes. Distinct from “gaze-based” tracking (which often refers to IMU-driven 3 DoF rotational tracking, which follows the orientation of a user’s head), eye-tracking is measured independent of the rest of the head, and can be used to supplement of replace other forms of tracking or input, especially in service of goals related to accessibility.
A family entertainment center is an entertainment center that is marketed towards families  See Entertainment Center.
A horizontal measurement of image size, typically measured in degrees. A 180° field of view encompasses half of a circle.
A system that provides a simulation of resistant or active forces to parts of the body. Often called force feedback.
A form of discrete or integrated processing component specifically designed to perform graphical rendering tasks, as opposed to a traditional processor. Required to operate a tethered HMD.
A display that provides proprioceptive stimulation to the user. This includes force and tactile displays.
A device, which is fastened to the head, and used to display a computer-generated scene. A Head Mounted Display typically provides a stereo-optic (3D) view through the use of two displays placed directly in front of the eyes. Typically, HMDs include a tracking device to convey the direction of gaze to the graphics engine.
A display presented in the line of sight of the user, which overlays computer generated information over the real world by presenting it on a transparent display surface. A HUD may present Augmented Reality but it also may present data that is not registered to the environment. Typical applications are in vehicles and near-eye displays. Non-AR data often includes vehicle status data (speed, orientation, navigation, systems status, etc.), text or graphic information used for maintenance, and manuals and other information regarding specific tasks.
Large, flat-screen display panel, used individually, or as a sub-display in a video wall. Often used to provide stereo-optic display.
Refers to various forms of entertainment in destination locations and specialized venues, such as amusement parks and entertainment centers. LBE is comprised of des a wide variety of experiences offering various levels of immersion and sometimes can incorporate multiple participants simultaneously.
A display using an array of long, narrow lenses placed side by side and which are placed over a multiplexed display image in such a way that each eye receives a different, parallax-adjusted image. Lenticular displays are common as novelties that provide changing or stereoscopic images printed on paper. They have also been used with active displays to provide stereoscopic images. In such displays, the lenses are placed vertically, and the display behind them consists of pairs of right-left slices of the complete image.
A display that fills a space with focused light, creating an image in space. Projected holograms are one type of lightfield display. Light field display make use of multiple dimensions of light, as created or captured by specialized devices. Lightfield displays make use of the plenoptic illumination function to express an image of a scene from any possible viewing position at any viewing angle.
A display technology consisting of triads of Red, Green, and Blue liquid crystals. Used in many displays across a wide variety of form factors, including phones, laptop computers,  HMDs, projectors and LFDs. LCD displays require a backlight.
A display using LEDs for the lightsource behind an LCD display panel. This has succeeded fluorescent lighting sources , and is preferred for its lower power requirement and more even light distribution.
The addition of computer-generated imagery to real life imagery, either in a see-through or video-based display. See Augmented Reality, the preferred descriptive term.

Note: This is primarily a marketing term put into common use by Microsoft in 2018.
A type of VR HMD characterized by its reliance on a smartphone to display, control, and store VR or AR content. The most common example is Google Cardboard.
A form of brain-computer interaction which typically employs electroencephalography (EEG) readings using non-invasive sensors to determine user intent in certain immersive display applications.
The use of specialty chemicals/agents to reproduce specific scents, usually in an immersive/experiential capacity.
An LED technology that adds an organic emissive electroluminescent layer to the LED.  This reduces the component count in a display be combining the display and lighting in one module. OLEDs can provide higher contrast than LCD/LED panels.
A direct measure of the number of pixels per 1 in². This is sometimes referred to as Points or pixels per inch (PPI) or dots per inch (DPI).
Direct measure of the width and height dimensions of a rectangular display, in pixel width by pixel length. This is often referred to as display resolution.
Amount of space between dot clusters on an emissive large format display, most often discussed within the context of optimal viewing distances. This specification is analogous to pixels-per-inch but is primarily used for larger form factors, such as digital signage.
Semiconductor nanocrystals which can produce pure monochromatic red, green, and blue light. LED displays built with quantum dot technology (QLED) entered the marketplace in the mid-20-teens. This technology may replace LED and OLED displays, due to QLED’s physical flexibility, wide color gamut, high color purity, high brightness with low turn-on voltage, and ultrathin form factor. It is possible to build transparent displays using QLED technology.
A 3D rendering technique which traces the paths travelled by light in a scene and simulates their interaction with surfaces, enabling highly accurate and photorealistic reflections, shadows, and other visual effects, at significant cost to computing load and rendering time.
The number of times an image display changes, measured in hertz. A faster refresh rate results in smoother animation, and reduces motion artifacts in the image.
The physical dimensions of a rectangular display, usually measured in inches or meters, often as a single diagonal figure.
A class of headworn AR display device in the form factor of traditional eyeglasses.
Sound that comes from, or is perceived to come from, a sphere around the listener. Sometimes referred to as 3D sound.
Standalone VR
Entirely self-contained VR hardware with no tether or removable computer or display components.
A group of complex computational tasks which constructs or updates a map of an unknown environment while simultaneously keeping track of an agent's location within it. This is used for tracking by inside-out HMDs and augmented reality applications.
A flat display that provides the illusion of depth by providing slightly different images to each of the viewer’s eyes, enabling the brain’s understanding of parallax to create a 3-dimensional visual perception. There are several methods of 3D illusion, including using active glasses that alternately obscure vision on each eye (shutter glasses), using polarized light to separate right and left images, and using different colored lenses (anaglyph) to provide separate images to each eye.
A specialized form of computer processor manufactured for use in compact electronic devices such as smartphones, named for its inclusion of several different computing systems, including CPU, GPU, I/O, Networking, and Security.
A system that provides a sense of touch, such as temperature, friction, texture, etc.
An array of traditional hardware using any given display technology (including those not commonly found in consumer-grade displays, such as laser projection) but designed with particular attention to thickness and bezel size, in order to give the impression of a single, large display.
An AR system comprised of a display with a camera facing the viewer. The software reverses the image to create a mirror image, as opposed to a TV-like image. Virtual mirrors are popular in retail environments.
A synthetic environment comprised of computer-generated, three-dimensional objects with which random interaction is possible. An experience may be considered Virtual Reality (VR) if it meets these three criteria:
  • VR is an interactive experience created and mediated by a computer.
  • VR is comprised of worlds which are made up of 3D objects.
  • VR provides random interactivity.
A computer-based simulation displayed as graphics. See Virtual Reality.
A display that provides three-dimensional images that occupy real 3D space and may be viewed from any angle. There are a number of ways to create real or apparent volumetric displays, including multi-planar displays, holographic displays, lightfield displays, and spinning display surfaces.
Broadly describes any structure which guides waves of energy, as in acoustics or electromagnetism. Within xR, waveguides represent a complex component commonly employed in the construction of transparent displays for fixed and near-eye augmented reality displays.1
A general term to indicate any of Augmented, Mixed, or Virtual Reality.

Two dimensional.
Three dimensional.
Third Generation. Often describing the third generation of cell-phone technology.
Four dimensional. Usually refers to the three spatial dimensions plus time. Also infers animated or moving 3D images.
A display and television standard of approximately twice as many pixels as HDTV (see).
A wireless networking standard, typically called WiFi (Wireless Fidelity). Common varieties include A, B, G, N, and AC. Connections may be open or encrypted.

WiFi is typically used in homes, commercial establishments, and in public spaces, as it provides connections at a distance of up to 100 meters. Many devices connect to WiFi, including computers, mobile devices, printers, and cameras.
A display and television standard of approximately four times as many pixels as HDTV (see).
Association for Computing Machinery. Sponsor of many computer and computer graphics conferences, including SIGGRAPH. (Special Interest Group; Graphics.
Accelerated Graphics Port. A bus used to connect image generators in personal computers.
American National Standards Institute.
Augmented reality.
Advanced Research Projects Agency. Formerly DARPA (DefenseARPA). US DoD agency responsible for funding advanced research projects in many areas. Now again called DARPA (see)
Army Research Lab (US). Headquartered in Adelphi, MD. 
Air Traffic Control.

Close Combat Tactical Trainer. US Army second generation virtual trainer. See SIMNET.
Computer Graphics/Computer Graphics Imagery.
Computer Human Interface. ACM group conference on the discipline is SIGCHI.
Central Processing Unit. The core logic/processing unit of a computer.
Cathode Ray Tube. The largely obsolete display component of TVs and computer monitors prior to the 2000's.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Formerly ARPA (see). US DoD agency responsible for funding advanced research projects in many areas.
Distributed Interactive Simulation. Communication protocol for military simulations developed in the 1990's.
Department of Defense (USA).
Degrees Of Freedom. Used to discuss motion and tracking capabilities.
Defense Modeling and Simulation Coordination Office
Digital Signal Processor. Used to process sound, video, and other signal data.
Electronic Frontiers Foundation. A group lobbying and working for freedom for electronic communications equivalent to that of other forms of communication.
European Space Agency. The European Union's equivalent to the United State' NASA.
Federal Aviation Administration (US).
Federal Communications Commission (US).
Finite Element Analysis.
Force Feedback. Also known as a force display.
Floating Point Operations Per Second. A measure of computing speed. Often, MFLOPS, GFLOPS, or TFLOPS (Mega-, Giga-, Tera-FLOPS)
Field of View. A characteristic measurement of display system image size.
Frames per Second. A measure of computing and display performance.
GigaByte. One billion bytes, or characters. A measurement of memory and storage capacity.
Geographical Information Systems. Computerized maps and related programs and databases.
Graphics Language. A standard for specifying 3D objects for computer display.
High Definition Television. A standard for broadcast television, often used to describe display system pixel density. True HDTV provides 1920 horizontal pixels and 1020 vertical pixels, for a total of 2,073,600 pixels. (Also called 2K TV – the approximate number of horizontal pixels.)

Newer versions of displays are described as multiples of HDTV. 4K TV provides approximately twice as many Pixels. 8K TV provides roughly four times as many pixels.
Human Factors.
Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HITL), at the University of Washington in Seattle, USA. A pioneer location for xR.
High-level Architecture. A networked simulation standard used primarily in military simulation. Superceded DIS and SIMNET.
Head Mounted Display. Also, headset, goggles.
Head-Up Display. A display shown on a transparent surface that allows data to be superimposed on a view of the real world. Typically not attached to the viewer, such as part of an vehicle dashboard.
Hertz, cycles per second.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer. An internationally-recognized standards-setting organization.
Institute for Simulation and Training, Orlando, Florida, USA. A program of the University of Central Florida (UCF).
Johnson Space Center, NASA's Houston, Texas, USA headquarters.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA facility based in Pasadena, California (USA).
Location Based Entertainment.
Liquid Crystal Display.
Light Emitting Diode.
Modeling and Simulation.
Megahertz: I million cycles per second.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A technology for controlling instruments, and other devices by computer.
Millions of Instructions Per Second. A measure of computing speed and power.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Ministry of Defense.
Motion Pictures Expert Group, A standards setting organization. Deals with the coding of multimedia information. Also MP3, MP4, variations of the original MPEG standard.
National Aeronautics and Space Agency (USA).
National Science Foundation (USA).
Naval Postgraduate School (USA). Located in Monterrey, Califonia.
Organic Light-Emitting Diode. A flat, flexible display technology.
Picture Element. The basic building block of a graphic display, and the unit in which display resolution is usually expressed.
Polygons, the basic building blocks of 3D models. Graphics performance for VR is sometimes expressed in Polys per second.
Point Of View.
Research and development.
Society for Computer Simulation.
Special Interest Group, Graphics. A sub-group of ACM (see). Also, the annual conference of the same name.
Simulation Networking. A demonstration project and training system of the US DoD, Army and ARPA developed in the mid-1990's.
Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation. US Army program for simulation and training.
Terabyte: One trillion bytes, or characters. A measurement of memory and storage capacity.
Tactile Feedback. Also referred to as tactile displays.
Universal Serial Bus. A fast serial bus used in personal computers. For connecting external peripherals. Successor to RS-232 standard for serial data transmission.
A computer operating system, originally developed by AT&T. Predecessor to LINUX, which is open source.
Visual simulation.
Virtual Reality, Virtual Environments, Virtual Worlds. Collectively, xR (see).
A collective term for augmented, virtual, and mixed reality. Note that the "x" is lower case, denoting an unknown variable.

Here are some of the books written by our team.

Virtual Reality 1.0 – the 90's cover imageDid you ever wonder who built the first head-mounted display? Who first detailed a coherent theory of Cyberspace? Who wrote about cybersex and the challenges it creates? Who worried about addiction to VR? Did anyone ever cure cyber-sickness?From 1991 to 1996, CyberEdge Journal covered these stories and hundreds more.

CEJ was read in more than 40 countries by thousands of VR researchers, developers, vendors, and aficionados. Appreciated for its "No VR Hype" attitude, CyberEdge Journal was the publication of record for the VR industry in the 90's. Author Ben Delaney was the Publisher and Editor of CyberEdge Journal, and was one of the most respected commentators and presenters in the field. He went on to publish the industry-defining multi-year market study, The Market for Visual Simulation/Virtual Reality Systems until 2004.

Now that VR is enjoying a renaissance, it's time to understand where it came from, and avoid making the same mistakes that were made in the first golden age of VR, the 1990's. It's also a good time to remember the excitement and sense of adventure that characterized those time.

Virtual Reality 1.0 – the 90's describes not just some of the hot topics of VR, but also the origins, issues, and solutions that were chronicled in the pages of CyberEdge Journal. Complemented by over 100 photos and drawings, there is a surprisingly contemporary feel to these old articles. In addition, more than a dozen VR pioneers have contributed new reminiscences of their work in VR. Another treat, the book is introduced by one of the acknowledged leaders of VR research and industry, Dr. Thomas Furness, Founding Director of the world-famous Human Interface Technology Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle.

See a video profiling Dr. Furness by clicking here.
See Ben Delaney explaining VR on Newton's Apple by clicking here.

Click here to read a preview, see the table of contents, and buy the large-format book, author-signed book, or Kindle edition

ISBN: 978-1-5136-1703-9, Pages: 440, Chapters: 85, Illustrations: 88, Indexed

Digital Illusion cover imageDigital Illusion explains that by combining traditional entertainment skills with advanced tools and methods in computer graphics and image processing, the producers of games, multimedia networks, virtual reality environments, and theme parks are reshaping one of the largest industries in the world. This book details the design and implementation of computer-based entertainment, based on Clark Dodsworth's hands-on experience.

Dan Sarto said in his contemporary review, "Digital Illusion - Entertaining the Future with High Technology is a tightly woven compilation of 35 chapters covering critical aspects of what Dodsworth refers to as the 'entertainment beast and its future.' Each chapter is penned by an industry expert, and then edited and crafted by the author into one comprehensive volume like little gems fashioned together into a magnificent tiara. Digital Illusion marries intelligent and descriptive narrative with detailed facts and explanations. This book has something for everybody, and should appeal to a wide audience. Newbies and wannabees can find solid fundamental descriptions about core concepts, tool sets, and practical uses of key technologies. Expert technologists can find fresh perspectives on where this 'stuff' came from, where it is today, and where it's going tomorrow."

Paperback, 545 pages. Digital Illusion may be found on Amazon and eBay.

Garage Virtual Reality cover imagePublished in 1994, Garage Virtual Reality presents and explore information in a whole new way.

Linda Jacobson's Garage Virtual Reality captures the enthusiasm and insights of the early virtual reality days and maps the course low-end VR has since taken. It presents a neat and tidy introduction to VR (high- and low-end) and covers all the systems and software available to the home experimenter. It outlines the conceptual steps involved in creating a virtual world, as well as the hardware and software you need to get there. The PC-compatible disk that comes with the book includes a full working version of Virtual Reality Studio 1, a demo version of Vistapro 3, and source code for programming the Power Glove and other devices.

This book was a big hit when it came out, and a usable VR systems cost close to a million dollars. It's fun to read both as history and as an example of how much people wanted to experience VR in the 1.0 generation.

Paperback, 250 pages. Garage Virtual Reality may be found on Amazon and eBay.

Cyberarts: Exploring Art and Technology cover imageLinda Jacobson edited Cyberarts: Exploring Art and Technology, which described the exciting and mysterious synergy of art and technology that took place in the early '90's. It describes the then-new frontier in creativity, where the worlds of science and art met. Computer technologies, visual design, music and sound, education and entertainment merged to form a new artistic territory of interactive multimedia.

This diverse collection of essays, articles, and commentaries investigates the creative dimension where technologists and artists apply emerging interactive, multimedia tools and techniques to: (1) Music; (2) Graphics; (2) Animation; (4) Publishing; (5) Video; (6) Theater; (7) Theme Parks; (8) Toys and Games; and (9) Virtual Reality. Multimedia terminologies are highlighted in the text, with definitions and additional information provided in the margins of the text. A gallery of color images is included. An appendix of sources and resources and an index concludes the text.

Paperback, 312 pages, ISBN: 0879302534, Cyberarts: Exploring Art and Technology may be found on Amazon and eBay.

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Some interesting and entertaining articles from the era of VR 1.0.

The Failure of VizSim

The Failure of VizSim

The bottom line remains the same in software development, or any engineering project. Garbage in, garbage out. Simulation has no immunity. The only way to make good VizSim is to stay on top of the three foils - optimism, ignorance, and laziness.

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Computer Graphics: Helping to Cope With Terrorism

Computer Graphics: Helping to Cope With Terrorism

It was impossible for me to maintain the journalistic detachment that is a mark of professional reporting as I write this article. For I was one of thousands of New Yorkers crowded on rooftops, staring with disbelief, afraid to keep watching, and unable to look away.

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On the Trail of the Shadow Woman:  The Mystery of Motion Capture

On the Trail of the Shadow Woman: The Mystery of Motion Capture

Perhaps you saw those dancing cars and credit cards in the Shell ad on TV. That was done with MoCap. Or you may have admired those folks strolling on the sun deck in Titanic. That was MoCap, too. In the past few years, as the technology has become less expensive and at the same time more accurate, MoCap helps lessen the rigors of traditional cell animation—especially in highly cost-conscious projects like TV commercials.

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Reflections on the Appearance of VR

Reflections on the Appearance of VR

Some people will say VR has gone the way of AI: over-hyped, and then forgotten. I don't think so. At SIGGRAPH, VR was everywhere, being used, valued, and generally celebrated.

Read More  

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